433.
A PROPOSED HYDRAULIC EXPERIMENT.
[Philosophical Magazine, Vol. xxxvr. pp. 31-5—316, 1918.]
IN an early paper* Stokes showed " that in the case of a homogeneous incompressible fluid, whenever udx -i-vdy + wdz is an exact differential, not only are the ordinary equations of fluid motion satisfied, but the equations obtained when friction is taken into account are satisfied likewise. It is only the equations of condition which belong to the boundaries of the fluid that are violated." In order to satisfy these also, it is only necessary to suppose that every part of the solid boundaries is made to move with the velocity which the fluid in irrotational motion would there assume. There is no difficulty in the supposition itself; but the only case in which it could readily be carried into effect with tolerable completeness is for the two-dimensional motion of fluid between coaxal cylinders, themselves made to rotate in the same direction with circumferential velocities which are inversely as the radii. Experiments upon these lines, but not I think quite satisfying the above conditions, have been made by Couette and Mallock. It would appear that, except at low velocities, the simple steady motion, becomes unstable.
But the point of greatest interest is not touched in the above example. It arises when fluid passing along a uniform or contracting pipe, or channel, arrives at a place where the pipe expands. It is known that if the expansion be sufficiently gradual, the fluid generally speaking follows the walls, or, as it is often expressed, the pipe flows full; and the loss of velocity accompanying the increased section is represented by an augmentation of pressure, approximately according to Bernoulli's law. On the other hand, if in order to effect the conversion of velocity into pressure more rapidly, the expansion be made too violently, the fluid refuses to follow the walls, eddies result, and mechanical energy is lost by fluid friction. According to W. Froude's generally accepted view, the explanation is to be sought in the loss of velocity near the walls in consequence of fluid friction, which is such that the fluid
* Gamb. Trans. Vol. ix. p. [8], 1850; Math, and Phys. Papers, Vol. in. p. 73. 35separately vibrations parallel to Z and to X. As regards the former, we have the same set of factors over again, as in (1), so that the vibration is A sin2 6 + C cos2 6, reducing to G simply, if A = G. This is the result for a single particle whose axis is at W. What we are aiming